Ice cores are claimed to have as many as , annual layers. Yet airplanes of the Lost Squadron were buried under feet of ice in forty-eight years, or about 5. This contradicts the presumption that the wafer-thin layers in the ice cores could be annual layers. Ice cores and the age of the earth. Ice layers are counted by different methods mainly, visible layers of hoar frost, visible dust layers, and layers of differing electrical conductivity which have nothing to do with thickness. These methods corroborate each other and match with other independently determined dates Seely The airplanes landed near the shore of Greenland, where snow accumulation is rapid, at about 2 m per year.
Ice Core Dating
Below that depth, the core was dated by extrapolation Friedli et al. The gases from ice samples were extracted by a dry-extraction system, in which bubbles were crushed mechanically to release the trapped gases, and then analyzed for CO2 by infrared laser absorption spectroscopy or by gas chromatography Neftel et al. The analytical system was calibrated for each ice sample measurement with a standard mixture of CO2 in nitrogen and oxygen. For further details on the experimental and dating procedures, see Neftel et al.
Dating and Accumulation. On some glaciers and ice sheets, sufficient snow falls each year to form recognizable annual layers, marked by seasonal variations .
What sort of information can be found out by the analyses? Why do scientists drill ice cores? By studying patterns in the way the climate has changed in the past it is possible to follow trends that show likely climate changes in the future. What makes ice cores so useful for climate research? As the snow accumulates each year it builds up into a sequence of layers that contain a surprising amount of information. For example there may well be evidence for the prevailing wind direction and strength, total annual precipitation and average temperatures.
Air pollutants such as soot particles and a wide variety of chemicals are also trapped in the ice layers as well as dust from volcanic eruptions and sandstorms. Apart from direct measurements using weather instruments like thermometers, and anemometers which have only been systematically used on a global scale for about years , ice cores are one of the best ways we have of getting detailed records of past weather patterns. Usually the winter snow accumulation is seen as a thicker, lighter coloured layer compared to the thinner, darker summer layer.
By counting down the layers, it is often possible to calculate the number of years represented in a particular ice core.
Creation Science Rebuttals, Institute for Creation Research, Impact #, Ice Cores
Physical and chemical characteristics of ice cores The occurrence of melt features in the upper layers of ice cores are of particular palaeoclimatic significance. Such features include horizontal ice lenses and vertical ice glands which have resulted from the refreezing of percolating water Langway, ; Koerner, a. They can be identified by their deficiency in air bubbles.
The relative frequency of melt phenomena may be interpreted as an index of maximum summer temperatures or of summer warmth in general Koerner, b. Other physical features of ices cores which offer information to the palaeoclimatologist include variations in crystal size, air bubble fabric and crystallographic axis orientation Langway, Considerable research effort has been devoted to the analysis of carbon dioxide concentrations of air bubbles trapped in ice cores.
Ice Cores Reveal Earth’s Secret Past. Jul 19, By Radhika, Guest Writer. By analyzing and dating ice cores, researchers from the Desert Research Institute have essentially created a timeline comparing volcanic activity and historical evidence. The Contradiction.
Detailed information on air temperature and CO2 levels is trapped in these specimens. Current polar records show an intimate connection between atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature in the natural world. In essence, when one goes up, the other one follows. There is, however, still a degree of uncertainty about which came first—a spike in temperature or CO2.
The data, covering the end of the last ice age, between 20, and 10, years ago, show that CO2 levels could have lagged behind rising global temperatures by as much as 1, years. His team compiled an extensive record of Antarctic temperatures and CO2 data from existing data and five ice cores drilled in the Antarctic interior over the last 30 years. Their results, published February 28 in Science , show CO2 lagged temperature by less than years, drastically decreasing the amount of uncertainty in previous estimates.
Snowpack becomes progressively denser from the surface down to around meters, where it forms solid ice. Scientists use air trapped in the ice to determine the CO2 levels of past climates, whereas they use the ice itself to determine temperature. But because air diffuses rapidly through the ice pack, those air bubbles are younger than the ice surrounding them. This means that in places with little snowfall—like the Dome C ice core—the age difference between gas and ice can be thousands of years.
They measured the concentration of an isotope, nitrogen 15, which is greater the deeper the snowpack is. Once they were able to determine snowpack depth from the nitrogen 15 data, a simple model can determine the offset in depth between gas and ice and the amount of time the difference represents.
Ice Core Data Help Solve a Global Warming Mystery
Oard Uniformitarian scientists claim to have counted , annual layers of ice down one of the ice cores drilled into the central Greenland ice sheet, but this claim is incorrect. Creationists view the lower portion of the ice sheet as accumulating rapidly during a year Ice Age, while the upper portion represents accumulation in the 4, years since the Ice Age. Annual layers in the very top section of the core are easily interpreted from the ratio of oxygen isotopes, and creationists agree with these interpretations.
Below this top section, the annual layers interpreted from the two models diverge significantly. Rather than annual layers in the uniformitarian model, the changes in the parameters represent multiple variations within a single year, and sometimes variations over a few days.
Methods for Dating Ice Cores By: Melanie Goral, Basic Outline • Ice Cores – Background • Four Major Methods for Dating Ice Cores • General Background • Benefits • Problems • Conclusions Ice Cores – Background • Layers of snow compact under own weight and become ice – Snow and.
PDF Abstract Ice-core records show that climate changes in the past have been large, rapid, and synchronous over broad areas extending into low latitudes, with less variability over historical times. These ice-core records come from high mountain glaciers and the polar regions, including small ice caps and the large ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. As the world slid into and out of the last ice age, the general cooling and warming trends were punctuated by abrupt changes.
Climate shifts up to half as large as the entire difference between ice age and modern conditions occurred over hemispheric or broader regions in mere years to decades. Such abrupt changes have been absent during the few key millennia when agriculture and industry have arisen. The speed, size, and extent of these abrupt changes required a reappraisal of climate stability.
Records of these changes are especially clear in high-resolution ice cores. Ice cores can preserve histories of local climate snowfall, temperature , regional wind-blown dust, sea salt, etc. Ice-Core Interpretation Dating and Accumulation. On some glaciers and ice sheets, sufficient snow falls each year to form recognizable annual layers, marked by seasonal variations in physical, chemical, electrical, and isotopic properties.
These can be counted to determine ages e. Ice flow may disrupt layers quite close to the bed 4 , 5 , and ice flow progressively thins layers with increasing burial so that diffusion or sampling limitations eventually obscure annual layers. Where annual layers are not observed because of depositional or postdepositional effects, by dating is conducted by correlation to other well-dated records, radiometric techniques in favorable circumstances, and by ice-flow modeling if needed.
Ice Core Studies
Yet some ice sheets continued to grow. The Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets are remnants left over from the post-Flood Ice Age figures They were protected from melting by their location in the polar latitudes and by the high altitude of the ice deposited during the Ice Age. The altitude of the ice is an important factor since the atmosphere cools at an average of 3. It is interesting to note that the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets may never have grown to their present size, if it were not for the initial thickness of ice at the end of the Ice Age.
Some scientists believe that if the ice somehow disappeared, it probably would not return in the present climate.
Dating of Ice Cores from Vernagtferner (Austria) with Fission Products and Lead 39 EXPERIMENTS A. SAMPLES The cores were drilled in at an elevation of m on the Yernagtferner (see.
Ice cores Ice cores The Norwegian Polar Institute studies the mass and distribution of glaciers, and how climate change affects them from year to year. Old layers of ice in glaciers can also be used as a climate archive, and can show the prevalence of hazardous substances. Climate archive in the deep freeze A slice from an ice core. The ice contains air bubbles and particles with climatically active gases such as CO2.
The ice cores are drilled and packed inside a tent to avoid wind and sun. A metre long ice core was retrieved. The snow that once fell there provides important information about what characterized the climate eons ago. Ice cores can show us how temperatures have varied and ice ages have come and gone hundreds of thousands of years back in time. This information gives us perspective on our own time. Ice cores from Antarctica have revealed that the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases including CO2 are much higher now than they were before.
This article incorporates revisions to the original in response to corrections and information supplied by Peter Knight, and by Sean Mewhinney via Leroy Ellenberger see e-mail message below. Revised August In the Creation ex nihilo Magazine Vol 19 3: After describing how holes were melted into the ice until the planes were discovered feet deep, Wieland makes this curious comment: None of the discoverers had thought that the planes could possibly be buried under more than a light cover of snow and ice.
And why would they?
 Ice cores from temperate regions have long been expected to be useful for understanding local climate trends, but a reliable dating method has proved difficult. Here we show that measurements of pollen using samples with only 10 mL of water can give an accurate measure of the annual ice .
I have reproduced the article here so that I can respond to it in context. First of all, thank you for the link to it. Before I begin, I want to mention that the dating and the article are done with the presupposition of both long ages and not only uniformitarianism but gradualism. Understanding that I do not accept these presuppositions and will be looking at the evidence presented from the standpoint of recent creation and catastrophic interruptions in history, I will approach the article from a “devil’s advocate” point of view as far as evolutionists are concerned.
The quoted article is in italics. Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, highest and driest continent on Earth. That’s right – the driest! Antarctica is a desert.